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        The Situations, Main Tasks and Countermeasures of China's Scientific and Technological Work on Forestry and Grasslands in the New Stage
        Hao Yujun
        2021, 1(1): 1-7.   doi: 10.12344/lczcyj.2021.03.30.0001
        Abstract(71) PDF(39)
        Abstract:
        With the rapid development of forestry and grassland in China, the increase of "green quantity" has attracted worldwide attention. Meanwhile, it also has the deficiency of extensive development and low quality. If we do not improve the level of scientific and technological innovation, it will result in the "abnormal development" which brings about more quality problems with faster construction, thereby leading to serious risks. This paper analyzed the situation and the main tasks of China's scientific and technological work on forestry and grassland in the new stage, put forward the plans and countermeasures of the scientific and technological work on forestry and grassland, and pointed out the key research directions that should be focused on at present.
        High-quality Development Strategy for Conversion of Farmland to Forests and Grasslands
        Li Shidong
        2021, 1(1): 8-19.   doi: 10.12344/lczcyj.2021.03.06.0001
        Abstract(58) PDF(40)
        Abstract:
        Turning marginal farmland to forests and grasslands is a famous ecological project in the world and a vivid practice of "two mountains theory". Based on the analysis of the new situation of conversion of farmland to forest and grassland, this paper systematically elaborated the concept of high-quality development of conversion of farmland to forest and grassland, expounded the reason and the way to promote high-quality development of conversion of farmland to forest and grassland, and proposed the basic ideas, development goal, core content and policy countermeasures of the high-quality development.
        Thoughts and Suggestions on Desertification Combating in the Sandy District of Northern China
        Li Bing, Zhang Yuqing, Zhang Zhitao, Yu Tao, Ding Guodong, Qin Shugao, Zhao Yuanyuan, Gao Guanglei, Lai Zongrui
        2021, 1(1): 20-27.   doi: 10.12344/lczcyj.2021.03.09.0001
        Abstract(23) PDF(19)
        Abstract:
        China has been recognized as one of the countries that suffer most from desertification in the world. After decades of unremitting efforts, China has made remarkable achievements in desertification combating, and won wide acclaim from the international community. In the new historical period, China's desertification combating is still facing severe challenges. There are important issues to be addressed such as how to determine the reasonable scale of ecological construction under the constraints of resource carrying capacity, protect and upgrade the existing sand-fixing vegetation, restore and reestablish ecosystem in desert regions, scientifically evaluate the service function of desert ecosystem, handle the contradiction between resource utilization and ecological protection, develop the economy and promote the sustainable development in desert regions. On the basis of extensive investigation and in-depth analysis of the key desertification provinces in northern China, this paper summarized the achievements of China in desertification combating, and put forward some misunderstandings and problems that need to be paid attention to in desertification combating at present, and put forward concrete suggestions on the general principles of desertification combating, sustainable management of land, evaluation of governance effectiveness, governance models and measures, development of sand industry, scientific research and international cooperation in China in the future.
        Reflections on the Protection and Rehabilitation of Forest Ecosystem in China
        Wei Xiaoxia
        2021, 1(1): 28-33.   doi: 10.12344/lczcyj.2021.03.05.0002
        Abstract(34) PDF(20)
        Abstract:
        Aiming at the present situation of forest ecosystem in China, this paper analyzed the main problems confronted by forest ecosystem in our country, put forward the major objectives and indicators of protection and rehabilitation of forest ecosystem, and discussed the main methods and approaches of protecting and rehabilitating forest ecosystem in the future, in order to provide references for the protection and rehabilitation of different types of forest ecosystems.
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        High-quality Development Strategy for Conversion of Farmland to Forests and Grasslands
        Li Shidong
        2021, 1(1): 8-19.   doi: 10.12344/lczcyj.2021.03.06.0001
        [Abstract](58) [PDF 1005KB](2)
        Abstract:
        Turning marginal farmland to forests and grasslands is a famous ecological project in the world and a vivid practice of "two mountains theory". Based on the analysis of the new situation of conversion of farmland to forest and grassland, this paper systematically elaborated the concept of high-quality development of conversion of farmland to forest and grassland, expounded the reason and the way to promote high-quality development of conversion of farmland to forest and grassland, and proposed the basic ideas, development goal, core content and policy countermeasures of the high-quality development.
        The Situations, Main Tasks and Countermeasures of China's Scientific and Technological Work on Forestry and Grasslands in the New Stage
        Hao Yujun
        2021, 1(1): 1-7.   doi: 10.12344/lczcyj.2021.03.30.0001
        [Abstract](71) [PDF 970KB](5)
        Abstract:
        With the rapid development of forestry and grassland in China, the increase of "green quantity" has attracted worldwide attention. Meanwhile, it also has the deficiency of extensive development and low quality. If we do not improve the level of scientific and technological innovation, it will result in the "abnormal development" which brings about more quality problems with faster construction, thereby leading to serious risks. This paper analyzed the situation and the main tasks of China's scientific and technological work on forestry and grassland in the new stage, put forward the plans and countermeasures of the scientific and technological work on forestry and grassland, and pointed out the key research directions that should be focused on at present.
        Evolution and International Comparison of China's Forestry Management System Since 1949
        Zhang Xufeng, Meng Gui, Wu Shuirong, Yu Yangting, Zhu Anming
        2021, 1(1): 55-62.   doi: 10.12344/lczcyj.2021.01.31.0001
        [Abstract](75) [PDF 1187KB](2)
        Abstract:
        Since the founding of the People's Republic of China, China has made great achievements in the development of forestry, in which forestry management and governance systems have been playing an important role. In order to fully reveal the development and evolution of China's forestry management system since 1949, this paper analyzed China's national forestry management departments and their changes, the vertical system of national forestry management, and the political dimension of the chief executive of national forestry departments. In addition, the paper made a brief comparison with the forestry management systems of the United States and Germany, in order to seek consensus and provide a useful reference for the modernization of forestry management system. The study shows that the national forestry management departments of China have changed several times in the past 70 years with frequent changes in the early period and gradually being stable in the later period. The process of its change is basically in line with the process of China's social and economic system reform, the function of macro-control is increasingly prominent, and the direct market intervention is gradually weakened. The core responsibilities have gradually shifted from economic production to ecological construction, from a single forest ecosystem to "three ecosystems and one biodiversity". It mainly manages forestry affairs "independently", but in recent years it has been integrated into the overall management system of natural resources. The forestry management structure in China maintains the combination of vertical and horizontal administration, but it has changed from the vertical one as the major to the horizontal one as the major. The vertical system is basically stable with the continuous extension of the national administrative divisions from the central government to the local and grassroots level. The policy transmission mechanism from the top to the bottom is very mature and taking a dominant position. At the same time, the feedback mechanism from bottom to top and the suggestion mechanism from outside to inside are gradually developed. The political dimension of the chief executive is relatively stable, which ensures the relative importance of forestry in national macro decision-making to a certain extent. In addition, the comparison with the international forestry management system shows that in the current global context of sustainable development, forest resource management tends to be integrated into the natural resources management or the ecological management. This study can provide a useful reference for the modernization of China's forestry management system.
        Reflections on the Protection and Rehabilitation of Forest Ecosystem in China
        Wei Xiaoxia
        2021, 1(1): 28-33.   doi: 10.12344/lczcyj.2021.03.05.0002
        [Abstract](34) [PDF 923KB](2)
        Abstract:
        Aiming at the present situation of forest ecosystem in China, this paper analyzed the main problems confronted by forest ecosystem in our country, put forward the major objectives and indicators of protection and rehabilitation of forest ecosystem, and discussed the main methods and approaches of protecting and rehabilitating forest ecosystem in the future, in order to provide references for the protection and rehabilitation of different types of forest ecosystems.
        Thoughts and Suggestions on Desertification Combating in the Sandy District of Northern China
        Li Bing, Zhang Yuqing, Zhang Zhitao, Yu Tao, Ding Guodong, Qin Shugao, Zhao Yuanyuan, Gao Guanglei, Lai Zongrui
        2021, 1(1): 20-27.   doi: 10.12344/lczcyj.2021.03.09.0001
        [Abstract](23) [PDF 1517KB](0)
        Abstract:
        China has been recognized as one of the countries that suffer most from desertification in the world. After decades of unremitting efforts, China has made remarkable achievements in desertification combating, and won wide acclaim from the international community. In the new historical period, China's desertification combating is still facing severe challenges. There are important issues to be addressed such as how to determine the reasonable scale of ecological construction under the constraints of resource carrying capacity, protect and upgrade the existing sand-fixing vegetation, restore and reestablish ecosystem in desert regions, scientifically evaluate the service function of desert ecosystem, handle the contradiction between resource utilization and ecological protection, develop the economy and promote the sustainable development in desert regions. On the basis of extensive investigation and in-depth analysis of the key desertification provinces in northern China, this paper summarized the achievements of China in desertification combating, and put forward some misunderstandings and problems that need to be paid attention to in desertification combating at present, and put forward concrete suggestions on the general principles of desertification combating, sustainable management of land, evaluation of governance effectiveness, governance models and measures, development of sand industry, scientific research and international cooperation in China in the future.
        Main Problems and Countermeasures of Ecological Conservation and Restoration of Forest and Grass in 几-shaped bend (Yulin) of the Yellow River
        Wang Feng, Chen Xingliang
        2021, 1(1): 76-80.   doi: 10.12344/lczcyj.2021.02.04.0001
        [Abstract](51) [PDF 915KB](7)
        Abstract:
        The conservation and restoration of the ecosystem in 几-shaped bend of the Yellow River is the important content of the ecological protection in the Yellow River Basin and the basis of the high-quality development of the regional economy. Taking Yulin as an example, this paper summarized the achievements and problems of ecological conservation and restoration of forest and grass in Yulin. Combined with the new opportunities for ecological conservation and restoration of forest and grass brought by the significant national strategies, the reform of forestry chief system and climate change, this paper put forward some countermeasures to promote ecological conservation and restoration of forest and grass from the aspects of actively planning major projects for ecological conservation and restoration of forest and grass, innovating policy mechanism of ecological conservation and restoration of forest and grass, perfecting ecological compensation system, strengthening management and conservation of forest and grass resources, carrying out actions to improve the quality and efficiency of the forest and grass industry,and strengthening talents and scientific and technological support.
        Ecological Forest Ranger Policy in Yunnan Province and Its Implification
        Han Feng, Gao Yue, Zhao Rong, Dai Shuanyou
        2021, 1(1): 70-75.   doi: 10.12344/lczcyj.2021.03.11.0001
        [Abstract](15) [PDF 956KB](0)
        Abstract:
        Taking Yunnan Province as an example, this paper summarized the current ecological forest ranger policy, and put forward some targeted policy suggestions based on the problems existing in the process of policy implementation. In the course of carrying out the ecological forest ranger policy in Yunnan Province, through standardizing the selection and recruitment process, integrating and increasing the investment of funds, perfecting the management system, strengthening the management and supervision, the dual improvement of capacity to protect forest resources and rural residents' income in Yunnan Province has been realized, border land security has been consolidated and the system of forest management and protection has been optimized. However, some problems also emerge, such as insufficient coordination between the ecological forest ranger policy and relocation policy for poverty alleviation, deviations in the implementation of policies in some regions, inadequate performance of some ecological forest rangers, the construction of the forest management and protection system to be refined, and legal disputes in the labor agreement of ecological forest rangers. Therefore, the paper put forward the targeted proposals, including exploring the establishment of a vacating mechanism of ecological forest rangers in a centralized resettlement site, strengthening the daily management of relocated ecological forest rangers, constantly improving the standardized management capabilities of basic units, and promoting the refined management of various ecological management and protection personnel, strengthening publicity and training continuously.
        Calculation and Analysis on Transformation Rate of Forestry Scientific and Technological Achievements in China
        Wu Jingyu, Ning Youliang, Shen Weihang, Wang Dengju
        2021, 1(1): 49-54.   doi: 10.12344/lczcyj.2021.02.25.0001
        [Abstract](28) [PDF 1089KB](0)
        Abstract:
        On the basis of analyzing and drawing lessons from the existing research results and combining with the concrete reality of the transformation of forestry scientific and technological achievements, this paper put forward the concept of transformation rate of forestry scientific and technological achievements based on the stock of achievements and the cumulative amount of transformation. Based on the warehousing results of the national forestry science and technology promotion achievement database, the transformation rate of domestic forestry scientific and technological achievements in 2018 is calculated and analyzed by using the methods of sampling survey, conditional judgment and quantity-oriented ratio. The results show that the transformation rate of forestry scientific and technological achievements in China is 61.27% by the end of 2018; there are significant differences in the transformation rate of scientific and technological achievements of various professional fields and R&D subjects. The external factors, such as the lack of transformation funds and imperfect incentive mechanism, are the main reasons that restrict the transformation of achievements, while the internal reasons that lead to the non-transformation of achievements are the lack of technology maturity, inconsistence with market demand and replacement by new achievements. Based on the above research results, this paper put forward some policy suggestions, such as establishing a scientific and technological achievements transformation mechanism with close integration of production, education and research, and multi-agent cooperation, establishing a diversified investment mechanism for scientific and technological achievements transformation, improving the incentive mechanism for scientific and technological achievements transformation, strengthening the construction of talents for scientific and technological achievements transformation, and strengthening publicity campaign, promotion and demonstration.
        Recent Situation and Enlightenment of Grassland Carbon Sink in Some Developed Countries
        Li Xiang, Zhang Huibin, Peng Wei, Sun Yingzhe, Wang Jia
        2021, 1(1): 91-96.   doi: 10.12344/lczcyj.2021.03.05.0001
        [Abstract](14) [PDF 967KB](0)
        Abstract:
        In September and December 2020, General Secretary Xi Jinping made an important declaration on China's response to climate change, put forward clear requirements for China's forest and grass to deal with climate change, and created a good opportunity to promote forest and grass carbon sink at the United Nations General Assembly and the Climate Ambition Summit. Compared with forest carbon sink, grassland carbon sink (GCS) has not been paid attention to and fully studied, while the data show that grassland carbon sink has great potential. The United States of America, the European Union, Australia, Japan and some other countries have carried on the deep explorations of the GCS from the basic research, the methodology system, the carbon sink project pilot, the policy consummation and so on, and have accumulated certain experiences. The potential of GCS in China is huge and has the basic conditions for further development. Bringing GCS into the carbon market can help grassland ecological construction and the realization of ecological product value. To this end, China should fully learn from the beneficial experiences of foreign countries, further strengthen GCS research, improve the basic preparations for GCS laws, regulations, standards, monitoring and certification systems, methodologies and so on, and initiate GCS trading pilots in Inner Mongolia and other places. On the basis of pilot projects, China should gradually promote the inclusion of GCS in the carbon market, meanwhile, continuously innovate and perfect the policies in terms of GCS research, basic preparations and pilot exploration, further demonstrate the determination and actions in addressing climate change, and set a model for the world.
        The Integration and Optimization of Natural Protected Areas: A Case of Lvliang Mountain State-owned Forestry Administration Bureau in Shanxi Province
        Bao Tian, Sun Li, Xu Chang, Zhang Tao, Shi Yue
        2021, 1(1): 81-85.   doi: 10.12344/lczcyj.2021.03.16.0001
        [Abstract](9) [PDF 950KB](0)
        Abstract:
        As a major measure to implement the thought of ecological civilization proposed by Xi Jinping, China carried out the integration and optimization of natural protected areas in the whole country in 2020. In view of a series of problems existing in the current natural protected areas of Lvliang Mountain State-owned Forestry Administration Bureau in Shanxi Province, such as unclear boundary, overlapping scope, more conflicts and vacant protected areas, the paper put forward the integration and optimization scheme of natural protected areas: combing and verifying the boundary, actively coordinating the dispute of ownership, adjusting and addressing conflicts according to regulations, reducing fragmentation and skylight, and constructing new natural protected areas, which aims at effectively solving the existing problems, providing a reference for the delimitation of ecological red line and the construction of ecological security pattern in land and space planning.
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